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Benjamin Rush Portal

A new way to explore Dr. Rush: Founding Father, Declaration of Independence Signer, Revolutionary War Surgeon General, Mental Health & Addiction Innovator, founder of Dickinson & Penn Med, & savior of the friendship between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson

A doctor, a political activist, a Founding Father

Navigate this virtual Benjamin Rush portal, inspired by Stephen Fried’s biography, and see the world through the eyes of America’s Founding Physician. Dive into Dr. Rush’s life from his decision to study medicine to his work at Penn revolutionizing the education of doctors and the care of mental health and addiction.

Featured in the portal are the most complete set of links available to Rush’s publications and letters—including the new digitizations of his lecture notes—as well as excerpts from Rush and videos with the author offering a deeper perspective on Rush's life.

Follow Rush’s journey through the earliest days of modern medicine, and join him as an eyewitness the American Revolution, so you’ll meet the world’s founding physicians as well as the country’s Founding Fathers, and explore Rush’s unique  friendships with Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Witness Rush’s life during the Revolutionary War as a physician and his relationship with George Washington. Learn about Rush’s heroic efforts to help cure the people of Philadelphia during the Yellow Fever epidemic of 1793. Discover Rush’s passion for understanding and destigmatizing mental health as a staff member at the Pennsylvania Hospital, and the leading teacher at the University of Pennsylvania medical school.


Rush's Lancet

A Rush-Curious Collaboration

Inspired by “Rush: Revolution, Madness & the Visionary Doctor Who Became a Founding Father” by Stephen Fried (UPenn Class of 1979)

Rush: Revolution, Madness & the Visionary Doctor Who Became a Founding Father by Stephen Fried


  • UPenn Libraries: Biotech Commons & Kislak Special Collections
  • Library Company of Philadelphia
  • Massachusetts Historical Society: Lyman Butterfield Collection
  • Duke University Special Collections
  • Princeton University Press
  • Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries
  • American Philosophical Society
  • College of Physicians
  • Founding Content Creators: Barbara Cavanaugh, Mitch Fraas, Stephen Fried
  • Founding Designer: Yen Ho

Rediscovering Benjamin Rush, Yellow Fever & the Revolutionary Early Days of Penn Medicine

Breaking News in Benjamin Rush History!

Biographer and Penn faculty member Stephen Fried discussed new access to Rush's writings, the nascent Rush Papers Project by Penn Libraries and the Library Company of Philadelphia, and the Penn Libraries' evolving Benjamin Rush Portal. Fried described how the Portal has blossomed thanks to the work of Yen Ho, a library science intern at the Penn Libraries Biotech Commons working under his guidance. Hear about the abundance of Rush papers, lecture notes, and journals that are now united and easily accessible, ranging from Rush's medical training and teachings to his writings about the 1793 Yellow Fever pandemic to race and abolition. The Portal pulls together resources from numerous institutions, including Penn Libraries and the Library Company of Philadelphia.

First Scans from the Rush Digital Project!!

Click on the manuscript below to see the first available scans of Rush’s lecture notes from his courses at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught the first 3000 physicians trained in the US! 

The digitization of this material is funded by the Council on Library and Information Resources.

One of Rush's lecture notes

Benjamin Rush Portrait by Charles Willson Peale

Benjamin Rush Portrait by Charles Wilson Peale

Benjamin Rush, 1783

"Rush decided to use the portrait to recast himself as a man of letter, science, and philosophy. He was portrayed sitting in his study as a small wooden table, looking up with a half-smile as if just interrupted from writing a sentence -- which reads,

'We come now gentlemen to investigate the cause of earthquakes.'

As for Rush's face, it wasn't the most engaging rendering ever done of him, nor was it as typically animated as Peale's other work. But the painting made Rush appear exactly as he wanted to see himself: as a man of science, philosophy, and literature, surrounded by ideas." (Fried, 261-262)