Geographic information systems (GIS) are used in a wide range of academic and applied fields. Simply put, GIS allows you to combine tabular data (e.g. a spreadsheet) with geographic boundaries (e.g. maps).
The library carries a huge number of GIS texts, both in print and online.
ArcGIS-Pro and ArcGIS 10.x Desktop are the most widely used GIS products, made by company called Esri. They are Windows-only suite of programs.
ArcGIS 10.x is a suit of the following applications:
There are also a number of extensions for particular tasks:
Geocode: To create points on a map from street addresses in spreadsheet form
Overlay: To superimpose two or more maps or layers in the same coordinate system, to show the relationships between them
Georeference: To align geographic data (map, layer, etc.) with a given coordinate system, allowing for overlays
Select by location (proximity analysis): To select features according to their relationship in space to other features
Select by attribute: To select features according to their properties (attributes), like querying a database
Buffer: To create a zone around a feature in units of distance or time
Network analysis: To find the distance from a feature travelled along a network (such as roads, public transit) rather than as the crow flies
Join: To attach fields from one table to those of another through an attribute or field common to both tables.
Viewshed analysis: To determine what areas are visible from a particular location.
Adapted from Esri's GIS Dictionary.