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Technical reports are generally unpublished papers that form a particularly large body of computer science literature due to the need for rapid dissemination in this field. Much of this material does NOT undergo peer review so it should be carefully evaluated when used. Here are a few sites to be aware of:
If Penn doesn't own a journal issue that you need, you can use this form to request the article. It will be delivered within 5 business days, sometimes even overnight!
Journal and Conference Papers
Journal articles can help you delve deeper into your topic than books and encyclopedias. Review articles will give you an overview of the state of a field over a period of time (pay attention to the publication date; they go out-of-date quickly). Research articles tell you exactly how a scientist performed his or her experiments and interpreted the results.
These resources help you find journal articles in various fields related to your projects.
Indexes most peer reviewed journals in science, technology, and medicine, and many in the social sciences, arts, and humanities. Scopus also includes a number of trade publications and conference papers, and can perform author and affiliation searching.
Access to Google Scholar with Penn-only links to full-text articles. Once authenticated through Penn's proxy, full-text articles to which Penn Libraries subscribe will become available within the Google Scholar search results.
Companies tend to file for patents instead of publishing in journals because a patent grants the holder exclusive use of the technology described for a set period of time (usually 20 years). 60-80% of material in the patent literature is published nowhere else. It is important for a company to understand the scope of protected technology to know in which areas they can freely operate.
Search more than 11 million patent records from 40 worldwide patent-issuing authorities. These include the US Patent and Trademark Office, European Patent Office, PCT (WO) applications and the Japanese Patent Office. Records from 1963 - present but coverage varies. Links to the full text of the patent in many cases. Derwent contains citing and cited patents, literature references, and patent family information.
Searches granted patents from the United States, Australia, and Europe, as well as published patent applications from the United States, Australia, Europe, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Allows a full-text search of many of these authorities' patents, and links to PDF where available.
Covers all US patents from 1790 onwards. Download or view high-quality images of the actual pages of the patents, including diagrams and structures from 1790 onwards. Patents from 1976 - present are available full text in an HTML text format.
More Information About Patents
These guides provide you with more in-depth information about various types of literature.