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Film and Streaming Video FAQ: Glossary

Answers to all your questions about film acquisitions and licensing, especially streaming.

Film Archives

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What is this guide?

This guide is a FAQ for all things streaming video, for bibliographers, selectors, librarians, and anyone interested in streaming video collections in libraries. This page includes a description of key services and terms, and the following pages address questions about acquisitions, rights, course use, reserves practices for streaming, film collections in the Penn Libraries, and the film distribution landscape for higher ed libraries and institutions.

JustWatch

JustWatch is an essential streaming video directory which shows where films and television programs are available to stream as part of subscription access, or as online rentals or purchases. International in scope. Available as an app.

Directories and information sources

ReelGood
Streaming video directory similar to JustWatch.

IMDb
The Internet Movie Database. An online database for films, television, other streaming content, and video games, with full cast details, plot summaries, reviews. Owned by Amazon.

ALVT
The Academic Libraries Video Trust. A VHS digitization project of the Video Trust, formerly known as the National Media Market and Conference, a group of media librarians and buyers and educational distributors. Penn is a member of ALVT. ALVT has a Titles Listing database, in the open source ILS Koha, which notes commercial availability of VHS tapes and distributor information, if a work is available on DVD or for streaming. ALVT's mission is to share digitized files of threatened material in the now obsolete VHS format, so that libraries that own less common works on VHS do not have to invest in local digitization workflows to have access to a digital preservation copy of a work that they own as a VHS tape.

Silent Era
An encyclopedic guide to silent-era films, with information about DVD and Blu-ray releases and expert reviews. Includes entries on early films believed to be lost.

 

Major streaming platforms

Kanopy

An on-demand platform for universities and public libraries. Films from the Criterion Collection/Janus Films, First Run Features, Kino Lorber, Media Education Foundation, Cohen Film Collection, Neon, Zeitgeist, Oscilloscope Features. Acquired by e-book vendor Overdrive in 2021.

 

Academic Video Online (AVON)

Proquest/Alexander Street Press platform Academic Video Online includes feature film, documentaries, news footage, historical newsreels, and a range of primary source content. Includes film from the Criterion Collection, PBS, BBC, and Academy, Emmy, Peabody award winners, as well as silent films, serials, and early cinema shorts, including Buster Keaton, Fritz Lang, Chaplin, Murnau, and Lubitsch.

 

Digital Swank Campus

Feature films and documentaries. Educational film distribution privately owned by Swank family since 1937. Represents 75% of Hollywood and independent studios, includes Universal, Paramount, Sony, United Artists, MGM, Warner Bros., Lionsgate, Disney, HBO films. Does not include Fox Searchlight.

 

Criterion Pics USA

Feature films. Non-theatrical film distribution for remaining Hollywood studios: 20th Century Studios, SearchLight Pictures, Fox. Note: this is Criterion Pictures, not to be confused with The Criterion Collection or the streaming video-on-demand service The Criterion Channel which are run by Janus Films.

 

Films on Demand

Infobase/Films Media Group platform Films on Demand includes documentaries, feature film, television programming from networks and cable providers. Includes Films for Arts & Humanities, A&E, Discovery, CNN, and some PBS programming.

 

Docuseek

Independent film and documentary platform. Participating distributors are Bullfrog Films, Women Make Movies, Icarus Films, First Run Features, Film Movement, KimStim, and others.

 

Film Platform

Documentary and feature film platform with ~500 films. Israel-based and many documentary films related to Israel, Palestine, Middle Eastern, and Near Eastern Studies. Partnership with U.S.-based ro*co films.

Major video-on-demand services

Acorn TV

Owned by RLJ Entertainment, formerly Image Entertainment. Known as major platform for British films and programming.

 

Amazon

Amazon Prime Video is Amazon's video on demand service. It features films and programs produced by Amazon Studios that are exclusive to the service.

 

AMC+

Streaming service of AMC Networks, with content from AMC, IFC, BBC and others.

 

Apple TV+

Apple's subscription video-on-demand service. Features some original programming produced by Apple.

 

AsianCrush

Streaming service "dedicated to pan-Asian entertainment."

 

BritBox

Joint venture of BBC and ITV featuring current and past series and films from UK public broadcasters.

 

Crackle

Streaming video platform formerly majority-owned by Sony, featuring Sony Pictures entertainment. Now run by "Chicken Soup for the Soul" self-help and publishing company.

 

The Criterion Channel

Janus Films streaming video platform for the full catalog of Criterion Collection titles. Kanopy offers 400+ Criterion Collection films, but the full collection is available to home viewers on the The Criterion Channel. Not to be confused with Criterion Pictures USA, which is a separate company that provides non-theatrical streaming licenses.

 

Crunchyroll

Streaming service for anime, manga, and East Asian drama. Owned by Funimation, a subsidiary jointly operated by Sony Pictures Television and Aniplex, a Japanese anime production company operated by Sony Music Japan.

 

Dekkoo

LGBT+ streaming service marketed to gay men. Philadelphia-based and owned by TLA Entertainment Group which produces the Philadelphia QFest film festival.

 

Disney+

Video-on-demand service with Disney-produced films and television series, with access to content from Pixar, Marvel, Star Wars, and NatGeo.

 

Epix Now

Older movies and television series, owned by a subsidiary of MGM, with titles from MGM, Paramount, and Lions Gate.

 

Fandor

Streaming service with eclectic mix of "independent films, classics, silent films, foreign films, documentaries and shorts." Acquired by Cinedigm in 2021.

 

fuboTV

Platform with mostly live sports--NFL, MLB, NBA, NHL--but also network television programs and movies.

 

HBO Max

Subscription video-on-demand service with original programming. Owned by WarnerMedia. Also has deals with BBC and Criterion Collection.

 

Hotstar

Platform with Indian and Bollywood programming. Owned by Disney.

 

Hulu

Major streaming video-on-demand service with original programming. Jointly owned by Disney (67%) and Comcast (33%).

 

IFC

Cable channel with mostly comedy and horror programming, owned by AMC Networks which is today majority-owned by the Dolan family. Chuck Dolan was founder of Cablevision and HBO.

 

iQIYI

Chinese online video platform. Netflix offers some of its original content to iQIYI for viewers in mainland China. Owned by Chinese search engine Baidu.

 

Kino Now

Kino Lorber's online platform with world cinema, documentary films, and selected classics.

 

MUBI

Streaming platform for global cinema. London-based. Also produces and distributes original programming.

 

Netflix

The streaming and production giant and Fortune 500 company with annual revenue of $25B. Produces an enormous quantity of original programming since 2013.

 

Pantaya

Latin American and Spanish-language streaming service with original Latin American programming and dubbed Lions Gate films. Owned by Hemisphere Media Group, a Spanish-language media company.

 

Paramount+

Subscription video-on-demand service formerly known as CBS All Access. Owned by ViacomCBS.

 

Peacock

Subscription video-on-demand services owned and operated by NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.

 

Showtime

A network with a subscription streaming service showing feature films and original television. Owned by ViacomCBS.

 

Shudder

Subscription-based video-on-demand service focusing on horror. Owned by AMC Networks. Integrated with Amazon Prime.

 

STARZ

Cable network and video-on-demand service with movies and original programming, a subsidiary of Lionsgate.

 

Sundance Now

Video-on-demand service featuring films screened at Sundance, independent film, serial television. Owned by AMC Networks.

 

Syfy

Cable channel and video-on-demand focused on science fiction, fantasy, and horror. Owned by NBCUniversal, which operates as a division of Comcast.

 

Vudu

Longstanding major streaming platform and digital video store which began as a streaming solution for high-res movies available at BestBuy, then sold to Walmart. Now owned by NBCUniversal subsidiary Fandango.

 

YouTube

Video and social media platform with streaming access to digital rentals of film and television.

Glossary

ASP

Alexander Street Press, a subsidiary of ProQuest

 

AVOD

Ad-supported video-on-demand

 

The Criterion Channel

Streaming platform for Criterion Collection releases by Janus Films

 

Criterion Collection

Branded series of canonical, remastered films on DVD released by Janus Films and featured on The Criterion Channel.

 

Criterion Pics USA

A non-theatrical streaming provider for feature films and television. Mostly Fox Searchlight and studio films whose rights are not managed by Swank. Not related to Criterion Collection.

 

Digital cinema package

A series of video, audio, assets and XML files which are put into a package called a "composition." This is a standard collection of files for a work that distributors can supply to a streaming platform or broadcaster.

 

DSL

Digital streaming license

 

JustWatch

Important streaming directory which is useful for locating current streaming providers for a given film

 

Kaltura

Cloud services video vendor that offers an online video platform, and which Penn Libraries uses to host digital files of films which we have licensed or purchased with perpetual rights.

 

Life of file

The longevity of current media file formats is not known, but distributors sometimes will sell digital files of films with educational rights or public performance rights for "life of file" or until the file is no longer readable, usable, accessible, etc.

 

Midwest Tape

Midwest Tape is our go-to vendor for physical media who offer us bulk discounts, convenient invoicing, and shelf-ready materials. They also own and operate the streaming platform for public libraries, Hoopla. 

 

PDA/DDA

Patron-driven acquisition a.k.a. demand-driven acquisition. Several years ago we had a PDA plan with streaming platform Kanopy in which we had access to select suppliers' films, and we were automatically invoiced after patrons triggered the purchase of a streaming license, after 4 viewings lasting more than 40 seconds each. The demand and the cost became unsustainable. Today Kanopy still offers a plan that they call "smart PDA" with a bit more oversight to determine limits for which films are available, but there are still concerns about demand and cost.

 

Perpetual access

See "Life of file"

 

PPR

Public performance rights. If a film is to be shown in a venue outside the home, to a group, on campus or in another venue, the organizer of the screening needs to purchase PPR in addition to a license or physical media. Penn Libraries purchase physical media and DSLs bundled with PPR when necessary. We do not purchase standalone PPR for campus or student events, and organizers need to cover the costs if they are showing a film that belongs to the library collection in a public venue. It is not necessary for instructors to obtain PPR for films shown in the classroom or films that individual students watch online for a course.

 

SVOD

Subscription video-on-demand