Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

P1P Citation Best Practices : Effective Citation

Using citation management to support ethical, high quality research

What to Cite

You can cite anything that you rely on to support an argument, counter an argument, build evidence for a conclusion you are making, for anything you represent, quote, summarize or paraphrase. 

  • Ideas
  • quotations
  • evidence
  • images
  • video clips 
  • research articles and books 
  • Your professor's lectures, notes, syllabus
  • a classmate's comments 

You'll want to cite whether what you cite is copyrighted or in the public domain (for example: most US government documents, material published before 1925)

Taking your place in the scholarly conversation

The scholarly conversation is ongoing. It reaches back to the earliest printed sources and continues all around you. When we write a paper or publish a book or article, we are engaging in a public exchange of ideas. Each engagement is built on previous engagements, whether we are countering a previous assertion or building on it. We are required to acknowledge it. But, it is also is to our benefit. It places us within that conversation. 


How do I fit into this scholarly conversation

Take careful notes of everything you read, view, or with which you engage

Keep your notes organized and associated with the articles, books, images, documents you are reading

Using a citation management tool or platform will help you with keeping notes and materials together and with proper formatting.