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P1P Citation Best Practices : Sample citations

Using citation management to support ethical, high quality research

Examples of Citing Images

The examples below are just the start. Use the guides or the Purdue OWL guides listed on the "How to Cite" tab, work with your professor, or contact, a Weingarten learning specialist, or a librarian for additional help with citation.

MLA Samples

In text citation 

MLA provides two ways to provide in text citation--"in prose," and "parenthetical": 

Incorporating it into your own sentence: Abd-Rabbo has provided new insight into the works of Chinua Achebe 

Using parenthetical in text citation: Thanks to new critical insight into the works of Chinua Achebe (Abd-Rabbo) 

you can also add a page number to the parenthetical citation (Abd-Rabbo 57)


List of Works Cited 

Journal article

Abd-Rabbo, Muna. "Overlapping Character Variations in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart." Journal of Narrative Theory, vol. 49, no. 1, 2019, pp. 55-81.


Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. London: Heinemann, 1987.


Chicaogo samples

Chicago style allows for footnotes or in text citation. Chicago calls their "in text citation" style:  author-date

In text citation

An example using both parenthetical author-date and author referenced in sentence and date parenthetically. Example is taken from the Chicago Manual of Style Online: 

As legal observers point out, much dispute resolution transpires outside the courtroom but in the “shadow of the law” (Mnookin and Kornhauser 1979). . . . Here we empirically demonstrate that workers’ and regulatory agents’ understandings of discrimination and legality emerge not only in the shadow of the law but also, as Albiston (2005) suggests, in the “shadow of organizations.”

Reference List entries if using author-date system:

  • Books
    • Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.
  • Journal articles: 
    • Morrison, Jago. 2018. "Tradition and Modernity in Chinua Achebe's African Trilogy." Research in African Literatures 49 (4): 14-26.

APA Samples

In text citation: 

According to Jones (1998), "students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Reference list: 


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI (if available)

Journal articles:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.