Skip to Main Content
Go to Penn Libraries homepage   Go to Guides homepage

NELC: Citation Best Practices: Sample citations

Examples of Citing Images

The examples below are just the start. Use the specific manuals listed or the Purdue OWL guides, all listed on the "How to Cite" tab; work with your professor, a Weingarten learning specialist, or a librarian for additional help with citation. Penn Libraries has subject librarians for all departments, schools, and centers. You can find your subject librarian listed in alphabetical order by subject.

Chicaogo samples

Chicago style allows for footnotes or in text citation. Chicago calls their "in text citation" style:  author-date.

In text citation

An example using both parenthetical author-date and author referenced in sentence and parenthetical date.

  • Anthropologists are turning to the concept of "care" or "casual care" to inform their research of daily practice. Barnes and Taher (2019) demonstrate this in their recent article describing the manner in which the government-subsidized "baladi bread," is handled by inidividuals and families in Cairo.
  • Casual care is a concept used to study daily or routine activities. Scholars have applied this concept to investigations of bread handling in Cairo (Barnes and Taher 2019) and the use of food in courtship (Alley, Brubaker, and Fox 2013).
  • Books in text citation (add page number)
    • (Pollan 2006, 123)
    • (Segal and Demos 2016, 15-16) (if four or more authors only list the first author in the in-text citation)

References or Works Cited

Chicago Manual of Style guidelines for online resources include URL/name of platform or DOI as part of the citation. The Chicago style does not require date of access, unless you are citing an online item that does not have a date of publication. Many webpages do provide a date for the latest update.

Note: If your article or book has more than four authors, you will only note the first one in your in-text citation: (last name et al. 2012).  Chicago Manual of Style states that in a reference entry you should include the first ten authors and then finish the list with "et al." (likely only in STEM publications, which often include large numbers of authors).


The Chicago Manual of Style is intended for use by authors, from students to published scholars to editors and publishers. The manual strives to provide an example and guidance for most eventualities in two distinct styles (author-date and full note). Surprisingly, the online resource is user friendly. It has an extremely detailed table of contents, a useful full text search, a running list of sections on the right hand column, and cross references galore.

While you can probably answer most of your questions from the "Citation Quick Guide," don't be reluctant to dive further in as you have questions about something you are adding. And, remember, you can always confer with your professor and with your librarian.

Penn Libraries Home Franklin Home
(215) 898-7555