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- "Open access": as a publishing option it addresses both the reading and using of material. If a text is openly accessible, it is free to read. Depending on how it is made available (See Creative Commons licenses), it may also be free to reuse.
- Every piece of fixed expression is subject to copyright unless the author intentionally dedicates it to the Public Domain (See our copyright guide and our tab on Creative Commons licensing for more information on copyright and sharing your work).
- "Open access" may not mean free to publish. There are multiple approaches to making an article or book open access, and four leading models of Open Access publishing (see the neighboring box for more on each model):
- Journals can be completely open access (PLOS, e-life, Bryn Mawr Classical Reviews). Some of these journals
- Charge a fee to authors (or to their research grants),
- Charge subscriptions to libraries, but are free to read, (also called to "subscribe to open"); and some
- Are free in all senses of the term--free to authors, free to readers, free to libraries (although sometimes sponsored by libraries or academic departments).
- Journals can be subscription based but offer the option of open access for a fee. These journals are often referred to as "hybrid" journals.
- Journals can be subscription based but allow others to post their pre-prints publicly.
- A misconception about the descriptive term "open access," is that it means that there is no peer review. This is incorrect. Just as not all subscription based journals offer peer review, the same is true for open access journals. Please take a look at our tab for evaluating journal platforms to learn more about determining journal quality.
Pre-print platforms support Green Open Access. Most pre-print platforms are STEM based but there is one significant platform for the humanities and at least one significant server in the social sciences. What follows is a list of the more prominent pre-print platforms. Pre-prints are usually completed research (as opposed to work in progress) but have not been peer reviewed. In many cases, journals allows authors to post the pre-print of their accepted (post-peer reviewed) article. In this case, you would also find a link to the published journal at the journal site.
Hosted and funded by Cornell University with support from university libraries, including Penn. arXiv includes nearly two million pre-published research papers in physics, quantitative sciences, economics, and more.
Hosted by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Post preprints and works in progress categorized into, "New Results," "Confirmatory Results," or "Contradictory Results."
Founded and supported by the American Chemical Society.
A geoscience, scholar-led effort. You can post preprints, monitor scholarship, and find collaborators. EarthArXiv has a specific mission to support early career academics.
Founded by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Yale University, and BMJ. medRxiv focuses on human health research.
Founded by the Modern Language Association and now sponsored by the University of Michigan, Humanities Commons provides a number of services including the opportunity to share work in progress, preprints, and post-prints. Some access is limited to members.
Part of the PhilPapers database, PhilArchives is a platform for "e-prints." Submit preprints and post-prints.
Owned by Elsevier, SSRN is an interdisciplinary pre- and post-print service, with representation from applied sciences, health sciences, humanities, life sciences, physical sciences, and social sciences.
Types of Open Access
Green, Gold, and Diamond are notable models of OA publishing that refer to the manner in which you make your scholarship openly accessible and the costs (or lack thereof) associated with it. Open Access publications may be accessed through a journal or publisher, through an author's personal website, or through other openly accessible platforms. The Sherpa Romeo database and the Directory of Open Access Journals platform provide information about the type of open access provided by individual journals.
- Green Open Access
- There is no fee for you to publish or for your audience to read. This might be publishing in a free-to-publish in and read journal or posting a copy of your scholarship in an institutional repository (Penn's repository is called ScholarlyCommons), your own website, or one of the many preprint platforms. Publishers will vary on what and whether they allow authors to post (preprints or version of record; immediately or after an embargo). This is something to keep in mind when you are signing contracts or reviewing your existing contracts.
- Gold Open Access
- This designation is used when a journal funds its open access model by charging the author a fee. This fee is often referred to as an APC or "article processing charge." Authors whose work is grant-funded must often make their work available openly within a specified period per the terms of their grants. In this case, the open-access publishing fee may be covered as part of the grant. Although GOLD Open Access exists across all disciplines, it is more typical in STEM fields than in Humanities or Social Science fields.
- Diamond or Platinum Open Access
- These newer OA models receive funding from grants, institutions, professional societies, and/or foundations, and therefore do not charge authors fees to publish or readers fees to read. Many libraries are working with scholarly associations and not-for-profit publishers to help support this model of open access: free to read and publish journals.
- This term is used when a subscription based journal (libraries or individuals subscribe to the journal for a fee) offers authors the option to publish their articles as open access for an APC. If they choose not to, their article will be, at least initially (based on grant requirements), only available to those subscribing to the journal or who are affiliated with a library that provides access to the journal through their subscriptions.