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Finding Images : Cite Images

This guide will show you how to find images for coursework, teaching and/or publication.

Citation Examples

Chicago Manual of Style: In the humanities, citations are provided in footnotes or endnotes along with the bibliography. Images can be cited using captions or in a bibliography. Check with your instructor for the correct format.

Bibliographic entry (general)
Gogh, Vincent van. The Starry Night. 1889. Oil on canvas. 29 in. x 36 ¼ in. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Footnote/endnote (general)
18 Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889, oil on canvas, 29 in. x 36 ¼ in., Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Caption (general)*note: captions can be done as figure, fig., illustration, or ill.
Fig. 1: Vincent Van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889, oil on canvas, 29 in. x 36 ¼ in., Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Bibliographic entry, online (websites or databases)
Duveneck, Frank.Whistling Boy, 1872. Oil on canvas, 28 in. x 21 ½ in.
Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati. <>, accessed 12 Aug. 2007.

Footnote/endnote, online (websites or databases)
4 Henri Matisse, The Woman with the Hat, 1905, oil on canvas, 81.3 cm x 60.3 cm, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco.

Caption, online (websites or databases)
Ill. 1: Frank Duveneck, Whistling Boy, 1872, oil on canvas, 28 in. x 21 ½ in. Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati,<>

Credit lines
Images with copyright restrictions:
Reproduced with permission from Jan Newstrom Thompson, Duveneck: Last Paintings Found (Santa Clara, CA: Triton Museum of Art, 1987), 55, © 1987 by Triton Museum of Art.

Images without copyright restrictions:
Man and boy fishing in Ohio River, September 14, 1929. Courtesy of Rosemary Bart

Photograph courtesy of Cincinnati Art Museum

Software Options

Mendeley - Mendeley is a free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organize your research, collaborate with others online, and discover the latest research.

Style Guides Online

Style guides are available in print and online. Check in the Penn Libraries catalog for specific guides and access.

Additional Examples

Image citation examples from ARTstor

EasyBib's How Do I Cite: A useful guide but the ads all over the pages are pretty distracting. 

Unknown Artist, Title, or Date

When all or part of an image source is unknown or unknowable, use these points to guide your MLA image caption:

Unknown Artist, Author or Creator
List that source by title in your works cited list. The title should be followed by the name of the source in the citation, and the remainder of the citation composed as appropriate for the source type. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a, an, or the).

An Image without a Title
If an image is not titled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Do not italicize this title or place it in quotes, and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.

Undated Sources
Use "n.d." (for "no date") in the appropriate place in your citation. When this is used after a period in a citation, capitalize the "n" ("N.d.").