The General Assembly is one of the principal organs of the United Nations, and it serves as a forum for member states to discuss and make decisions on a wide range of international issues. It is often referred to as the "parliament of nations" because it provides a platform for all UN member states to participate in global decision-making and diplomacy. It is the main deliberative, policymaking, and representative organ of the UN. All193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation.
The Security Council holds a central role in maintaining international peace and security. The Security Council has primary responsibility for addressing threats to peace, acts of aggression, and conflicts that could lead to international instability. It has 15 Members ( with five permanent members and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms . Each Member has one vote. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions.
The Economic and Social Council serves as a central platform for discussing and coordinating international economic, social, and environmental issues. Established by the United Nations Charter in 1945, ECOSOC plays a vital role in promoting sustainable development, addressing global challenges, and fostering international cooperation. It is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue, and recommendations on economic, social, and environmental issues, as well as the implementation of internationally agreed development goals.
The Trusteeship Council was established in 1945 by the UN Charter, under Chapter XIII, to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories that had been placed under the administration of seven Member States, and ensure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government and independence. By 1994, all Trust Territories had attained self-government or independence. The Trusteeship Council suspended operation on 1 November 1994.
The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Its seat is at the Peace Palace in the Hague (Netherlands). It is the only one of the six principal organs of the United Nations not located in New York (United States of America). The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies. The International Court of Justice functions in accordance with its Statute.
The Secretariat comprises the Secretary-General and tens of thousands of international UN staff members who carry out the day-to-day work of the UN as mandated by the General Assembly and the Organization's other principal bodies. The Secretary-General is Chief Administrative Officer of the Organization, appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable term. The Secretary-General is also a symbol of the Organization's ideals, and an advocate for all the world's peoples, especially the poor and vulnerable.