Area studies are interdisciplinary fields of research related to specific geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions. The following links are to area studies research guides that will be of help if you have a particular geographic research need.
International relations (IR) is defined as the study of the relationships between and among nation-states and the international system in general. Scholars of IR seek to understand the behavior, actions and struggle for power among international actors from different perspectives (i.e. idealist or realist) and at different levels of analysis (systemic, foreign, domestic, and individual). This guide is designed to support international relations coursework in the following Penn programs.
Academic, scholarly, and peer-reviewed books, journals, and articles are considered appropriate sources for college-level research and writing assignments. Here are a few tips when searching for books, journals, and articles:
Two major commercial database vendors—EBSCO and ProQuest—are widely used to provide e-books, political science journals, and peer-reviewed articles. Universities will usually provide access to databases from one or both vendors. Important things to know about EBSCO and ProQuest.