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Using Franklin Articles+


When two or more terms are entered into the Franklin Articles+ search box, they are automatically searched with an AND in between

online learning   is searched as:  online AND learning

The default search logic is that all terms much match, except stopwords (see below). 

Phrase Searching

Entering multiple terms in quotes limits results to exact phrase matches.

"global citizenship"

It is not possible to use truncation symbols within quotation marks. " "

Double quotes can be used even on a single term when verbatim matches, without word stemming, are desired.

For example, putting a single word with an accent in quotes will boost that word over the same term without accents.


Phrase searches can be used for languages that do not use white spaces between words, such as Chinese, Japanese, and Thai. 

Boolean Operators

Boolean operations: AND, OR,  and NOT must be written in all capital letters to ensure that they are interpreted as operators.

In a search statement with AND, OR, or NOT, Articles+ processes operators sequentially, from left to right, as the operators appear in the query.  If a query contains parentheses, operators within parentheses are processed first.

"social media" AND (teen* OR adolescent* OR youth)

To exclude items in an Articles+ search, use the NOT operator or minus sign (-) before a term (include no space between minus sign and term)

science NOT "science fiction"

science -"science fiction"

Franklin Articles+ allows for the use of these German Boolean operators ("UND", "ODER" and "NIGHT" in place of "AND", "OR", and "NOT". ) from its German UI. The English operators will continue to work in the German UI.


Proximity searches limit result sets to terms within a specified number of words from each other. To perform a proximity search, enclose your search terms in quotation marks and use the tilde (~) followed by a number indicating the distance you want to allow between the search terms.

"culturally pedagogy"~3 - will find culturally sustaining, relevant, responsive 

"picasso photography"~5

Articles+ automatically invokes full-text proximity searching if two or more words searched are not entered as a phrase search.  This proximity feature finds results when all search terms are within 200 words of each other, considered the typical length of a paragraph.  These results are boosted over other results where the words are in the full text but farther apart from each other.

Wildcards / Truncation

The question mark (?) will match any one character.  The question mark cannot be used at the end of a word.

organi?ation  will find  organization or organisation

The asterisk (*) will match zero or more characters within a word or at the end of a word. 

col*r   will find color or colour

creativ* will find creativity or creative

Wildcards cannot be used

  • as the first character of a search
  • within double quotes (phrase searching).

A wildcard search does not necessarily return more results than the same search without the wildcard. This is because the language-specific search features, such as stemming, synonym mapping and spelling normalization, do not apply to the wildcard search. For example, a keyword search for archaeology may return more results than the wildcard search for archaeolog*, since the former matches both archaeology and archeology via Summon's English spelling normalization feature, but the latter matches archaeology and not archeology.


Articles+ maintains language-specific lists of stop words, which are filtered out in the execution of searches except when they are part of formal phrase searches as described below. Stop words are chosen according to the following basic criteria.

  • is a function word, such as a definite/indefinite article, preposition, pronoun, conjunction and auxiliary verb,
  • occurs very frequently in Summon's index, and
  • does not have a common secondary meaning as a content word.

Ccurrent English stop words in Articles+ include "a", "an", "the", "and", "but", "or", "it", "of", "on", "with", "in", "is" and "are", but do not include "will" since it has a common secondary meaning as a noun.

Term Weighting

The "^" operator allows the modification of the relevance weights of search terms, phrases, fielded searches or Boolean expressions. The format is term^multiplier or expression^multiplier.

leonardo horse^2

(cats OR dogs)^5 AND birds

horse^2 doubles the original weight of the term.  Multipliers of less than 1 can be used: multiplier of 0.5 halves the original weight. When the "^" operator is used with a multi-term phrase or expression, the multiplier is applied to all of the terms in the phrase or expression.  The "^" operator cannot be used within double quotes.

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