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Education: Handbooks, Encyclopedias, Dictionaries

Finding Reference Works

Reference works are an important source for concept definitions, overview articles, and short bibliographies.  The Penn Libraries continues to acquire print and online reference works. These are accessible thorugh Franklin Catalog. 

 Search example: title:leadership (handbook* OR encyclopedia* OR dictionar*)


Online Reference Collections

Directories: Associations, Faculty, Research Centers

Gale Directory Library - Includes these Gale Reference Directories (select within the search interface)

  • Encyclopedia of Associations: International Organizations
  • Encyclopedia of Associations: National Organizations of the U.S.
  • Encyclopedia of Associations: Regional, State and Local Organizations
  • National Faculty Directory
  • National Directory of Non-Profit Associations
  • Research Centers Directory
  • Publishers Directory
  • Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media
  • Scholarships, Fellowships, and Loans.

Statistical Sources

For Statistical Sources, see these additional guides:

Non-Profits / Foundations / Grants

PennKey Required

Foundation Directory - provides current, accurate, and comprehensive information on U.S. grantmakers and their grants, drawn from reliable sources, including IRS Form 990s, grantmaker web sites and annual reports, and the grantmakers themselves.

SPIN Database (PennKey required). SPIN (Sponsored Programs Information Network) is a funding opportunity database that provides information on government and private funding sources in both the US and abroad. SPIN contains over 40,000 funding opportunities from more than 10,000 global sponsors. The University of Pennsylvania has subscribed to the SPIN database and provides access to all PennERA users.

Publicly Accessible

GuideStar - GuideStar gathers, organizes, and distributes information about U.S nonprofits.  Make an account to see Organization’s full address and contact information, Up to three years of Forms 990, Revenue and expense data for the current fiscal year, CEO, Board Chair, and Board of Directors information. - Searchable database of funding opportunities available through federal grant-making agencies. Records include program scope, eligibility requirements, deadlines, and program director contact information.

National Science Foundation - Awards Search

National Endowment for the Humanities - Funded Projects Query Form

National Institutes of Health - Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools

Grant Advisor Plus -

Education Directories

Think Tanks

Selected Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Selected Handbooks